Cross-pollinating plants that are similar cannot result in continued improvement. Improving yield potential of crop varieties through plant breeding will be a critical component for future food security (Foulkes et al., 2010). 102 Table 8.2. Biotechnology encompasses a number of tools and elements of conventional breeding techniques, bioinformatics, microbiology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, plant physiology, and molecular biology. To date, commercial transgenic maize has primarily targeted resistance to insects and herbicides. Wheat yields more than doubled and maize yields increased by about 90 percent (Morris et al. Crop yield comprises only a portion of biomass that accumulates over a crop cycle. However the following table shows that at aggregated level since 2006 to 2009 the increase of chemical fertilizers import did not always lead to an increase of the Rwanda crop production, Yields of CIP target crops showed encouraging results. It has been projected that global food production must increase by 70% to meet the demand caused by this growing global population, increasing incomes and consumption. Therefore, they are expected to respond to a greater extent to rising atmo-spheric [CO 2]than C 4 and CAM species. Tissue Culture: The growth of tissues of living organism in a suitable culture medium (in vitro)I is called tissue, culture. Higher yield : The ultimate aim of plant breeding is to improve the yield of “economic produce on economic part” . 89 Table 8.1. 1. INTRODUCTION Population improvement was the earliest method applied to cross- pollinated crops. 2.1. To accommodate increasing environmental pressure, our current crops will need to be adapted to give higher yields to feed a growing population. We can raise different strains of food crops with desirable traits naturally as well as scientifically. Here, we define yield potential as the yield of an adapted crop variety or hybrid when grown under favorable conditions ... By definition, improved yield cannot be attributed to better overall radiation use efficiency (RUE) in cases where total biomass has not been improved. - Genetic improvement in… Removing the dynamic components of environment and technology 15 3.2.2. Journal of Crop Improvement Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: ... performance, growth and yield of many crop plants, most of which are C 3. Comparison of existing methods for measuring crop production or yield. Selection Method for Crop Improvement: ... Later on many authors defined the term pure line and some of the important definitions given are: Progeny of a single individual obtained by selfing is called a pure line. The increased crop yields have been achieved through a combination of genetic improvements of cultivars and advances in agricultural technology and management. Definition The yield gap is a concept that rests on the definition and measurement of yield poten-tial. Crop improvement through breeding brings immense value relative to investment and offers an effective approach to improving food security. Evolution of yield criteria 4 2.2. Abstract. role of plant breeding in crop improvement slideshare Intensive efforts are currently underway to improve crop yields with lower input requirements and enhance the sustainability of yield through improved biotic and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Crop Management the group of agricultural practices used to improve the growth, development, and yield of agricultural crops. Definitions of crop yield 4 2.1. 2007). The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. To feed the several billion people living on this planet, the production of high-quality food must increase with reduced inputs, but this accomplishment will be particularly challenging in the face of global environmental change. Many plant growth regulators are now used for increasing crops yields. It deals with the improvement of crops and production of new crop varieties which are far superior to existing types in all characters. Crop Improvement Through Genetic Engineering 2. Quality seeds have the ability for efficient utilization of the inputs such as fertilizers and irrigation. 111 Table A6.2. The term precision farming refers to a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. It helps in the development of crops with desired traits such as high yields, disease resistance, quality product and response to fertilizers. Improvements in crop yields as a result of deep ploughing, with or without gypsum application, were related to enhanced water intake rates and depth of penetration and nearly doubled the effective available water holding capacity to a depth of about 90 cm … Crop Improvement Method # 5. Here we describe a transgenic approach to improve the yield and yield stability of maize. Our modern crops have been selectively bred for many centuries and so are not very diverse, genetically. Two of them are as follows: Crop improvement 1. In addition, significant efforts are focused on gaining a better understanding of the root/soil interface and associated microbiomes, as well as enhancing soil properties. 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